Visn. Hark. nac. agrar. univ., Ser. Biol., 2021, Issue 2 (53), p. 79-88


https://doi.org/10.35550/vbio2021.02.079




GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ORGANIZATION OF MECHANISMS OF BIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION


O. M. Mikheev

Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering

of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

(Kyiv, Ukraine)

E-mail: mikhalex7@yahoo.com


The fact of existence of a hierarchical organization of biological systems substantiates the existence of a hierarchy of mechanisms of their functioning and a hierarchy of mechanisms of response to stressors. It was shown that the adaptive response is based on the hormesis action of factor, and the study of mechanism of adaptive action can be reduced to the study of mechanism of hormesis effects caused by hypercompensatory processes in objects exposed to a certain stress factor. There are constitutive and inducible/stimulated phenotypic hyperadaptation (PHA). It occurs at a certain stage of positive readjustment of initial state of biological object in response to action of above-threshold levels of factors of any nature. PHA is a process and result of the functioning of constitutive or inducible/stimulated mechanisms of recovery. The whole hierarchy of recovery mechanisms, of which there are as many as there are recovery mechanisms (levels), can provide PHA at a particular level of the organization. PHA has a transitive, transient nature. There is a possibility of consolidating the state of hyperadaptation, when post-factor (post-stress) conditions contribute to its manifestation. PHA is based on processes of modification of initial values of parameters of a biological object, the result of which is the emergence of appropriate signals that determine the implementation of hyperadaptation mechanisms at final.


Key words: system approach, hormesis, adaptation

 


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