Visn. Hark. nac. agrar. univ., Ser. Biol., 2021, Issue 2 (53), p. 61-70


https://doi.org/10.35550/vbio2021.02.061




INFLUENCE OF CONDITIONS OF SEED REPRODUCTION OF DIFFERENT WHEAT GENOTYPES ON PRIMARY RESISTANCE TO HIGH TEMPERATURES AND FROST


A. P. Dascaliuc1, N. V. Zdioruk1, T. H. Ralea1, N. N. Jelev1, Yu. A. Pariy2, Ya. F. Pariy2

1Institute of Genetics, Physiology and Plant Protection

(Chisinau, Moldova)

E-mail: zdioruc-nina@mail.ru

2Ukrainian Scientific Institute of Plant Breeding

(Kyiv, Ukraine)

 

Experiments provided with the seeds of 50 wheat varieties reproduced in the Kharkiv region of Ukraine and Chisinau area of Moldova to elucidate the efficiency of rapidly assessing genotypes' primary resistance to high temperatures and frost. The tests were performed under laboratory-controlled conditions, based on the evaluation of the seeds' germination capacity after their exposition to shock with high or sub-zero temperatures. The obtained results demonstrated that by applying the elaborated methods, we could differentiate wheat genotypes by their primary resistance to extreme temperatures (excluding the adaptation processes induced during plant ontogenesis). Resistance of different wheat genotypes seeds to heat shock or shock with negative temperatures may vary, being influenced by the environmental conditions of their reproduction. The data obtained demonstrate that seeds resistance to both types of temperature shock is specific for different wheat varieties and can be influenced by conditions of seed reproduction. Due to this adaptive variability of genetic and epigenetic nature, wheat varieties and their descendants are characterized by high resistance and good productivity in different environmental conditions. The possibility of epigenetic inheritance suggests that it may influence the primary frost or heat resistance of wheat embryos. Because the meteorological conditions vary from year to year, they can influence the primary resistance of genotypes to heat stress factors even when seeds reproduced in the same zone. We consider that the assessment of the primary resistance of wheat genotypes offers new possibilities for determining its interference with other mechanisms of resistance of wheat genotypes to frost or heat. The elaborated methods are with perspectives for implementing in programs for selection or appreciation the heat or frost resistance of wheat genotypes.


Key words: Triticum aestivum, seeds, heat and frost tolerance, accelerated methods

 


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