Visn. Hark. nac. agrar. univ., Ser. Biol., 2020, Issue 2 (50), p. 54-69


https://doi.org/10.35550/vbio2020.02.054



CYTOKININS IN FUNGI


N. P. Vedenicheva, І. V. Kosakivska

Kholodny Institute of Botany
of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
(Kyiv, Ukraine)

E-mail: vedenicheva@ukr.net


Fungi play an important role in functioning of ecosystems, and are of great practical value as food and biotechnological subjects. At the same time, they are cause of many serious diseases that are very difficult to deal with. Mushrooms of different taxonomic and trophic groups are capable of producing phytohormones, in particular cytokinins. Studies of fungal cytokinins were started half a century ago, but there is still no clear opinion on the functions they perform in growth and development of these organisms. The review analyzes data obtained over the years regarding results of studying qualitative composition of cytokinins synthesized by fungi, exogenous influence of hormones on growth of fungi in culture and in situ, changes in physiology and metabolism of fungi due to genetic transformations related to cytokinins. Most fungi exist in close interaction with plants, forming associations both friendly (symbiosis) and hostile (parasitism). In both cases, they convert a host plant metabolism in their favor by effector substances, which include cytokinins. For the purpose of plant damage, fungi of a parasitic nature are manipulated by both their own genes for cytokinin biosynthesis and metabolism, and by the corresponding genes of host plant. Manifestations of such interaction depend on the nature of pathogen and its strategy, as well as the reactivity of immune system of an occupied organism. In study of symbiotic relationships of fungi and plants, in particular formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza, some contradictory data was obtained, which testify to the indirect action of cytokinins. The role of cytokinins in development of macromycetes, which constitute an unsystematic group of fungi capable of forming macroscopic fruiting bodies, is discussed separately. Cytokinins have been found both in vegetative mycelium and carpophores of macromycetes. The patterns of their dynamics allow us to consider hormones of this class as potential regulators of mushroom growth. In general, cytokinins of fungi have been studied insufficiently. Understanding of mechanisms of fungi development and identification of substances that can control them would improve biotechnology using fungi as raw materials for medicine and agricultural production.


Key words: cytokinins, fungi, parasitic fungi, mycorrhiza, macromycetes

 


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