Visn. Hark. nac. agrar. univ., Ser. Biol., 2020, Issue 1 (49), p. 54-61


А. N. Mikheev, L. G. Ovsiannikova, V. V. Zhuk, A. M. Berestyana

Institute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering
of National Academy of Science of Ukraine
(Kyiv, Ukraine)

According to the multilevel structural and functional organization of biological systems, it was suggested that there was a whole hierarchy of mechanisms for their functioning in general and for responding to stressors in particular. The hierarchical organization of biosystems provides the study of the mechanisms of certain reactions in the form of a consistent description of the reactions of all sublevels of the biological object that were described. This methodological installation was realized on the example of radiation hormesis effects in plants. Since the radio adaptive response is based on the radio-hormetic action, the study of the mechanism of the radio-adaptive action can be reduced to the study of the mechanism of the radiation hormesis. In turn, the radio-hormetic effects are caused by the hypercompensatory processes occurring in objects exposed to a certain stressor. The range of hormesis doses of gamma irradiation was determined by the dose dependence of the growth parameters of the main root of pea seedlings. In parallel, the mitotic index (MI) of the apical meristem cells of the main root of the seedlings, the level of cytokinins in the roots, and α-amylase activity in the cotyledons of the control and experimental seedlings were evaluated. In the irradiated roots, MI stimulation and the increased level of cytokinin synthesis preceded MI stimulation were observed, that confirmed the hypothesis about the possible role of post-radiation DNA degradation products in the stimulation of cytokinin synthesis. Indirect evidence is the data on the post-radiation degradation of the DNA in germ root cells. The results of studying the α-amylase activity dynamics in cotyledons of pea seedlings led to the conclusion about the relative independence of the stimulation of growth activity of roots from the possible stimulation of the trophic factor in the early stages of seedling development. The obtained results allowed us to propose a sequence of mechanisms of radio hormesis of the growth activity of seedlings as a hierarchical system.

Key words: Pisum sativum, γ radiation, radiohormesis, mitotic activity, cytokinins, α-amylase, radiation DNA degradation



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