Visn. Hark. nac. agrar. univ., Ser. Biol., 2019, Issue 2 (47), pp. 6-22


R. A. Yakymchuk

Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University
(Uman, Cherkasy region, Ukraine)

Radionuclide contamination of the biosphere has acquired a global nature, reaching critical levels in certain regions. Numerous data prove the fact that present-day ideas of radiation genetics cannot provide the prognosis of all negative consequences of mutagen effect on organisms. Distant genetic consequences of the radiation effect include a multi-level system of reactions which are in complicated casual connections and they are difficult to be predicted. High-dose radiation causes apoptosis which leads to the death of damaged cells and a compensatory proliferation of tissues. Genetic disorders can remain at low-dose radiation and result in remote consequences – the increase of hereditary variability, the decrease of immunity and adaptive potential of organisms, pathological oncology, the weakening and increase of offspring mortality, the speeding up of senescence, the change of a sexual proportion in populations, distant cell and embryonic death, genome instability, reproductive dysfunction, the change in radiosensitivity. Post-radiation genetic instability is found out after several cell generations by transferring potential damages of genetic material and can be induced due to the mechanism of «bystander effect». It is assumed that genome instability is connected with the efficiency decrease of reparative DNA synthesis as well as with the exhaustion of an antioxidant potential of cells. Genotype and phenotype variability increases not only as a result of radiation effect but also due to other stress factors, which makes it possible to assume generally biological significance of similar genome reconstruction. Radioadaptation may be due to the initiation by small radiation doses of reparation of DNA damages, causing reproductive cell death. Also, radioadaptation may be associated with genetically determined processes led to repopulation substitution of damaged or dead cells. The level of the found adaptive reactions in organs and tissues of the irradiated organisms is directed to rather the survival of some individuals than to prosperity of the population in conditions of increased radioactivity of their habitat. The study of the mechanisms, helping understand mutation processes which develop in remote terms after radiation, opens new possibilities to realize distant genetic consequences and adaptive processes on stress impacts under the effect of chemical factors. The need for systematic genetic monitoring in the territories experienced technogenic contamination with mutagenic factors was underlined, using sensitive and reliable methods of biotesting, which will allow to take into account phenotypic, cytogenetic and molecular genetic inherited changes in a number of subsequent generations.

Key words: genetic effects, low-doses, repair systems, mutational load, genome instability, hormesis, bystander effect, radioadaptation



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