Visn. Hark. nac. agrar. univ., Ser. Biol., 2017, Issue 2 (41), с. 92-102


https://doi.org/10.35550/vbio2017.02.092




TRITICUM DICOCCUM (SCHRANK) SCHUEBL.: ORIGIN, BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PERSPECTIVES OF USE IN BREEDINGAND AGRICULTURE


L. M. Babenko1, R. V. Rozhkov2, Ya. F. Pariy2, M. F. Pariy2, M. V. Vodka1, I. V. Kosakisvska1

1M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany
of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
(Kyiv, Ukraine)

E-mail: lilia.babenko@gmail.com
2All-Ukrainian Scientific Institute of Breeding
(Kyiv, Ukraine)


Intensive selection, aimed at increasing the yield, caused a significant depletion of the wheat gene pool that made researchers look for natural sources of economically essential features to improve it. Lately, researches are more often focused on studying one of ancient species of the genus Triticum L. – tetraploid wheat Triticum dicoccum (Schrank) Schuebl – an emmer. An increasing demand for this culture is due to the complex of economically essential features inherited from the wild ancestry. The review analyses and summarizes information on emmer’s origin, gives biological characteristics, deals with perspectives of the species’ use in selection involving interspecies hybridization and comparison of genome structure and evolution. Achievements and revival of emmer as an individual culture and its use as a source of economically essential features in selection programs on soft and hard wheat hybridization are discussed. Examples of a successful use of emmer economically essential features to improve modern highly productive wheat varieties are given. Data concerning the advantages of this culture grains over the genetically close wheat species are provided. Such essential features of emmer as early maturation, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, qualitative composition of grains, yield are revealed.


Key words: Triticum dicoccum, hulled wheat, free-threshing wheat, phylogeny, wheat genome, economically essential features, selection process

 


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